From a morphological point of view, it can be divided into two parts, each with its own characteristics. The mountainous western stretch is formed by calcareous rocks with marked Karst phenomena; it extends beyond the Apenninic watershed of the Mounts della Laga.
If we exclude the narrow coastal plains facing the Gulf of Taranto, Basilicata is completely mountainous, with mountains which rise to over 2,000 m. (the Pollino Massif, 2,248 m., on the Calabrian border; Mount Sirino, 2,005 m. near the border with Campania). The Fossa Bradanica, a deep tectonic valley furrowed by the Basentello-Bradano and partly filled with river sediments, sharply separates the Preapennine tablelands of the Murge from the higher and larger mountains of the Lucanian Apennines, which cover most of the region from the volcanic Vulture Massif (1,321 m.) to the Pollino group.
The morphological structure of Calabria is somewhat complex. Most of the mountains are massifs and isolated groups, separated by large valleys or cols. The Pollino massif, culminating in the Serra Dolcedorme (2,267 m.), lies on the Basilicata boundary, and its crests stretch southwest as far as the Passo dello Scalone (740 m.) where the Lucanian Apennines end, and the Calabrian Apennines begin with the Catena Costiera (Castal Chain).
Campania can structurally be divided into two clearly defined zones stretching northwest-southeast parallel to the coast. Inland rise the Campania and Lucanian Apennines, separated by the Sella di Conza (700 m.) and the upper Sele valley. Along the coast lie the Campano Preapennines, lower in height and of volcanic origin (the extinct Roccamonfina volcano, Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius) or limestone (Lattari mountains). To these two parallel ranges a third can be added; the discontinuous and much less extensive band of offshore islands of volcanic origin (Ischia, Procida, Vivara and Nisida) or limestone (Capri).
Emilia-Romagna is a region with a relatively simple morphology constituted of only two distinct parts: along the boundary with Liguria, Tuscany and the Marches, rise the Tusco-Emilian Apennines, at their feet a large stretch of the Po Valley, south of the river and the entire Romagnola plain.
Friuli Venezia Giulia
From a morphological point of view, Friuli-Venezia Giulia can be divided into two parts: a mountainous area to the north (Carnia) and a plain to the south. The mountainous area includes the southern side of the Carnic Alps (Mount Coglians, 2,780 m.) and the western section of the Julian Alps (Jof di Montasio, 2,754 m.).
The morphology of Latium is very complex but four main sub-regions can be defined: the Tyrrhenian coast, the inland plains, the mountains of the Latium Preapennines and a true Apennine area. The coast is mainly low and uniform, broken only by the spurs of Linaro point, Mount Circeo (541 m.) and the Gaeta headland: the Ponzian Islands, which are part of Latium, lie opposite the south coast.
Liguria spreads in an arch from the mouth of Roia to that of the Magra rivers, embracing the south side of the Ligurian Alps and Apennines (separated by Colle di Cadibona) as well as a large part of the Po Valley flanks. Most of the territory is mountainous or hilly with narrow strips of fairly low terrain along tracts of the coast or near several low alluvial valleys.
Three distinct natural zones can be fairly easily distinguished in the Lombardy region: mountain, hill and plain. The first is an alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps (Piz Bernina, 4 055 m.), the Orobic Alps, the Ortles and Adamello massifs; a pre-alpine zone, its main peaks being the Grigne Group (2,410 m.), Resegone (1,875 m.) and Presolana (2,521 m.). The great Lombard lakes, all of glacial origin, lie in this zone.
The region is mainly mountainous, although the groups are not particularly high: the highest mountain is Mount Vettore (2,476 m.) part of the Sibillini Mountains on the Umbrian border. From the ridge of the Apennines it slopes gradually towards the Adriatic coast, which for long stretches is flat and straight, a narrow ribbon of sand lying against the fringes of the hills beyond. Elsewhere it is steep, rocky and majestic.
The regional territory is nearly all mountainous (55% of the surface area) or hilly, with limited flat ground in the lower valleys and along the Adriatic coast; the Apennines divide Molise into isolated mountains and a chaotic array of hills, which stretch within a few kilometres of the coast, making communications difficult and creating a state of isolation.
Piedmont includes almost the entire upper section of the Po River catchment basin, ie., the plain above the Ticino, Sesia and Scrivia rivers and the surrounding Apennines and Alps; the upper Dora Baltea basin, part of the Valle d'Aosta, is excluded. Piedmont, however, also claims the Po Valley flanks of the Maritime and Cottian Alps, part of the Graian, Pennine and Lepontine Alps, together with a great part of the Ligurian Apennines of which Langhe and Monferrato hills are a natural continuation.
Although Puglia comprises a diversity of morphological zones with clearly defined characteristics, it retains a precise uniformity, conferred by the underlying rock and its structural constant, for the Puglia landscape consists prevalently of horizontal lines and gentle contours, which rarely take on the appearance of mountains, even at higher altitudes.
The morphology of the island is the result of complex tectonic processes and volcanic activity in the Cenozoic era on a mass of Paleozoic rock upthrust from the sea, later severely affected by late Paleozoic orogenesis. The Sardinian mountains are a chaotic series of deeply eroded ranges, groups, plateaux and uplands, scattered in apparent disarray.
Steeped in history, Sicily possesses an extraordinary range of art, archaeology, culture and folklore. Its mountains, volcanoes, islands, health spas, beaches, climate, cuisine, wine and hospitality combine to make Sicily the ideal tourist destination.
Trentino Alto Adige
Morphologically, Trentino-Alto Adige includes the mountains of the Adige basin, the whole Sarca basin (flowing into Lake Garda) and the upper basins of the Chiesa and Brenta rivers. The terrain is largely mountainous: the northern area stretches from the Ortles group (3,899 m.) along the Venoste, Breonie and Aurine Alps to the Vedrette di Ries (3,435 m.).
Tuscany is the fifth
largest region in Italy. Wedged deeply like a triangle in the heart of Italy, it constitutes a transitional, area between the Po Delta and Liguria, which are highly industrialized, and those Italian regions which are still principally agricultural.
Umbria has been, for a long time, a territory specifically chosen by Man to live and prosper in.
Numerous archaeological finds dating back to the Palaeolithic and Neolithic period (today exhibited, mainly in the Archaeological Museum of Perugia) reveal the presence in Umbria of organised human settlements since prehistoric time.
Entirely mountainous, Valle d'Aosta extends across the mountains and crests of the Graian and Pennine Alps. The head of the valley is closed to the west by the great Mont Blanc massif, with the highest peak (4,810 m.) in Europe and glaciers feeding the Dora di Veny and the Dora di Ferret, two sources of the DoraBaltea. To the south soars the Gran Paradiso massif (4,061 m.) while to the north, the Mount Rosa group (4,633 m. at the Dufourspitze) is the north-east boundary of Valle d'Aosta territory.
The morphology of Venetian territory presents a variety of aspects which of its kind is unique; it is characterized by seven physically homogeneous zones which stretch from north to south: the Alpine, Prealpine and Subalpine zones; the upper and the lower plain; the lagoon systems and the Po delta. Part of Lake Garda also belongs to this territory. To the north lie the Carnic Alps, which reach their highest altitudes at the Vanscuro peak (2,678 m.) and Mount Peralba (2,693 m.).